The hottest shift from farming and animal husbandr

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From farming and animal husbandry economy to knowledge industry

Ireland is an island country in Europe, lacking natural resources and the overall economic scale is small. Before the 1960s, Ireland implemented a closed protectionist economic policy, relied on agriculture and animal husbandry for a long time, and its economic growth was very slow. Since the 1960s, Ireland has been open to the outside world, encouraged the development of foreign trade, actively introduced foreign capital, and developed its economy with the help of foreign capital and technology. In the 1990s, the influx of a large number of foreign capital has made a qualitative leap in the Irish economy. Foreign enterprises have become the main force of the Irish economy and import and export trade. Technology intensive biochemical pharmaceuticals, electronic communications, computer manufacturing, software and financial services dominate the Irish economy. The information and communication technology industry plays a decisive role in the Irish economy, with 100000 people employed, and the annual export volume accounts for 25% of Ireland's total export volume

however, for multinational companies, Ireland is gradually losing its position of "low-cost production of low-end technology". Due to the business adjustment of foreign multinational enterprises and the small scale of Irish domestic enterprises, Ireland is unwilling to increase investment in research and development. At present, Ireland's information and communication technology industry is at a trough. On the whole, Ireland's comprehensive scientific research level is still at a low level internationally. What makes the Irish government more worried is that almost two-thirds of domestic R & D institutions are under the control of foreign enterprises. In the face of fierce competition in the international market, the Irish government believes that in order to maintain and consolidate the original advanced scientific research field and develop new industries, it is necessary to increase R & D investment, improve scientific and technological innovation ability, and adjust the product structure to products with high knowledge content and high technological added value. At present, the Irish government has identified information and communication technology (ICT), biotechnology (mainly including biomedicine and food) and new materials as the technical advantages of national priority development

Ireland's white paper on scientific and technological innovation

Ireland did not put science and technology in an important position in its early development. A considerable number of government officials believed that Ireland was a relatively isolated small country, which did not need to develop its own professionals, but only needed to buy the innovative achievements of others. Although this policy has promoted the development of multinational enterprises in Ireland, it has made domestic enterprises lose all kinds of talents, resulting in the depletion of talent resources in the whole country

at the end of the 1980s, Ireland used EU structural funds (the total profit of stru paper enterprises fell from 83.78 billion in 2017 to 76.64 billion in 2018. Structuralfund tied things with plastic ropes) and a large amount of funds from the research program to support scientific research, and achieved good results. This has fundamentally changed Ireland's previous tendency to ignore scientific and technological development

In 1996, Ireland published the first white paper on scientific and technological innovation in the history of its development. The white paper points out that the world is experiencing a new revolution, that is, the knowledge revolution triggered by rapid technological progress. In order to benefit from this development process, Ireland must carry out policy intervention to enable its enterprises to obtain the ability to compete, grow and create employment opportunities through scientific research and technological innovation activities. The purpose is to establish an innovative economy and society on the basis of contemporary scientific and technological development. The white paper also proposed that in order to enable Ireland to organize resources to carry out forward-looking research on the development of science and technology in Ireland according to the trends of international scientific and technological development, according to its own characteristics and in combination with its own development needs

Irish technology foresight study

in April 1999, after referring to similar studies carried out by several European countries and Australia and New Zealand, the Irish Council for scientific and technological innovation (ICSTI) organized and carried out Irish technology foresight study at the request of its science and technology minister and submitted a technology foresight study report to the government. The Irish technology foresight study is composed of eight subject expert groups, involving eight aspects: chemical industry and medicine, information and communication technology, materials and manufacturing technology, health and Life Sciences, natural resources (agricultural food, marine products and Forestry), energy, transportation and logistics, construction and infrastructure

In May, 2005, Ireland established the Scientific Advisory Council (ASC) to replace the scientific and Technological Innovation Council established in 1997. The Scientific Advisory Council will play an important intermediary role between the executive body and the decision-making body, promote the sustainable and efficient development of the national scientific and technological innovation strategy, and provide suggestions to the government on the medium and long-term development policies of scientific and technological innovation. Its status and influence on enterprises will be stronger than that of the science and Technology Innovation Council

According to statistics, Ireland's export trade volume in 2000 was 8.05 billion euros, 88% of which was exports of industrial manufactured goods and services, of which a considerable proportion was exports of high-tech products, such as medicine, electronics, communications, computer hardware and software. However, Ireland's investment in R & D is relatively low, and only 1/4 of the major exporters are engaged in high-intensity R & D activities. In order to change this situation, enable more companies to engage in high-level R & D activities in Ireland and ensure the sustained growth and prosperity of the national economy, Ireland issued the national development plan for 2000-2006 in November 1999. A very important point is to increase investment in scientific research to ensure that Ireland becomes a knowledge-based economy. In these seven years, Ireland plans to invest 2.41 billion euros in scientific research and technological innovation activities. The specific content is 698million euros for higher education, strengthening the engineering graduate program and the connection between industry and higher education; 711million euros will be used to establish a "forward-looking fund" to strengthen basic research in the field of biotechnology and ICT; 484million euros to support industrial R & D; 267million euros to promote cooperation between universities, R & D institutions and industry; EUR 250million is used for research programs in agriculture, fisheries and the environment

research, technology and innovation fund plan

in order to support the small amplitude research and development of enterprises, according to the national development plan 2000-2006, the Irish government implemented the "research, technology development and innovation plan (rtdi)" to support enterprises of different sizes to change to research and development enterprises. Part of the funds in the plan come from EU structural funds. The plan includes three programs: R & D capability certification program, research, technology development and innovation competition program and innovation management capability program

the R & D capability certification program assists Irish companies to establish or expand major R & D activities; The research, technology development and innovation competition program provides funding support for high-quality and high-risk R & D projects of enterprises on the basis of competition, so that R & D activities can be continuously invested; The innovative management capability program provides training support for the research and development management of enterprises, and helps enterprises obtain greater returns through investment in research and development

the third stage research plan for educational institutions

since 2000, the Irish government has adopted the "third stage research plan for educational institutions", together with the Irish science foundation, to provide financial support for basic research in Irish universities and promote university research and development. The Ministry of education and science of Ireland determines and allocates funds to higher education institutions mainly through the Department of higher education. The infrastructure construction of university scientific research has been greatly improved by providing a large amount of funding for natural science and Humanities Research of university scientific research institutions. With its financial support, by 2004, the newly expanded research area of universities reached 97000 square meters, including a new library of about 20000 square meters that can accommodate 1600 researchers. Through the investment of the third stage research program of educational institutions, Ireland has established 24 major research centers in universities, each with an investment of more than 5million euros. About 50% of the investment is concentrated in the fields of Bioscience and medicine, 10% in the fields of environment and marine development, 8% in information and communication technology and engineering materials, and 7% in Social Sciences and humanities

2010 action plan for promoting R & D investment

in 2003, a senior steering group of the Irish government began to draft Ireland's 2010 action plan for promoting R & D investment. The group is composed of representatives of well-known entrepreneurs, financial institutions, higher education institutions, advisory bodies and government consultants, and is directly led by the Deputy Prime Minister. It is specifically responsible for evaluating the main policy measures of the EU Sixth Framework Plan and the European research area (ERA), analyzing the impact of EU policies on Ireland, and formulating its own R & D goals and action plans according to European R & D goals and Ireland's priority development areas

in July, 2004, the steering group formally submitted a comprehensive analysis report entitled "building Ireland's knowledge economy - Ireland's action plan to promote R & D investment to 2010" to the Irish interdisciplinary Commission on scientific and technological innovation. The report analyzes in detail the investment of Irish state-owned and private institutions in R & D, evaluates the R & D environment in Ireland, and puts forward measures to promote R & D development in the future. This report will become a programmatic document and guideline for Ireland's scientific and technological research and development in the next five years. The report suggests that the government should take measures to increase the investment in research and development of enterprises; Re examine and approve the budget supporting enterprise R & D; Establish a new mechanism to reduce the influence of bureaucracy; Adopt tax relief and other policies to effectively promote enterprises to carry out R & D in a sustainable and systematic manner. (end)

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